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[來源:www.haradaip.com] [作者:淤泥固化] [日期:19-01-02]

淤泥特點
Silt characteristics
淤泥屬特殊土,具有不同于一般土的特性。淤泥質軟土含水率較高,一般大于 40 %,具有流變性、觸變性;顏色一般呈深灰色或暗綠色,并有臭味; 天然孔隙比大于 1. 0; 含有機質,甚至變成泥炭土 (有機質含量大于 50 %時); 強度低、壓縮性大、透水性差、抗剪強度低等。其高含水率和富含有機質是淤泥最顯著的特征,影響著其他性能。淤泥中含水率變化較大,如有的含水率大于液限,而有的卻相反。淤泥中較高含水率嚴重影響其力學性能。土體抗剪強度作為結構設計最重要的參數,受含水率影響較大,隨著淤泥中含水率增大,其呈降低趨勢。高含水率亦影響土體粘聚力,使土顆粒間作用力減弱。黃麗珊的研究表明,淤泥的粘聚力與液限和含水率之差呈正比,表明粘聚力受含水率影響。富含有機質是淤泥又一顯著特點。所謂有機質是指土中各種動植物殘骸和微生物及它們的生命活動所產生的物質的總和,它是淤泥土中最活躍因素之一,屬于土壤學范疇。有機物是很復雜的物質,很難給出確切定義較為廣泛接受的是蘇聯學者 Kononova的觀點,認為土中有機質的存在,主要有以下幾類:
Mud is a special kind of soil, which has different characteristics from common soil. Muddy soft soil has high water content, generally more than 40%, rheological property and thixotropy; its color is usually dark gray or dark green, and it has odor; its natural pore ratio is more than 1.0; it contains organic matter, even becomes peat soil (when organic content is more than 50%); its strength is low, compressibility is high, permeability is poor, shear strength is low, etc. Its high water content and rich organic matter are the most remarkable characteristics of sludge, affecting other properties. The water content in the sludge varies greatly, for example, some of the water content is greater than the liquid limit, while others are the opposite. High water content in sludge seriously affects its mechanical properties. As the most important parameter of structure design, soil shear strength is greatly affected by water content, which tends to decrease with the increase of water content in silt. High water content also affects the cohesion of soil and weakens the interaction between soil particles. Huang Lishan's research shows that the cohesion of silt is proportional to the difference between liquid limit and water content, indicating that the cohesion is affected by water content. Rich in organic matter is another remarkable feature of sludge. The so-called organic matter refers to the sum of all kinds of animal and plant debris and microorganisms in soil and the substances produced by their life activities. It is one of the most active factors in silt soil and belongs to the category of soil science. Organic matter is a very complex substance. It is difficult to give an exact definition of it. Kononova, a Soviet scholar, holds that the existence of organic matter in soil can be divided into the following categories:
(1) 新鮮及分解不充分的動植物殘體。
(1) Fresh and inadequately decomposed animal and plant residues.
(2) 腐殖質。①腐殖物質: 腐殖酸 (又稱胡敏酸、富里酸) 等; ②生物殘體的分解物和由微生物再合成的產物: 蛋白質、碳水化合物及其衍生物、蠟、樹脂、脂肪等。其中腐殖質約占50 % ~ 90 %,而腐殖酸又是腐殖質的主要成分,約占60 % 左右,對淤泥物理化學性能起決定性影響。
(2) Humus. (1) Humic substances: humic acid (also known as humic acid, fulvic acid), etc. (2) Decomposition of biological residues and products synthesized by microorganisms: proteins, carbohydrates and their derivatives, waxes, resins, fats, etc. Among them, humus accounts for 50%-90%, and humic acid is the main component of humus, accounting for about 60%, which has a decisive impact on the physical and chemical properties of silt.
腐殖酸的形成過程稱為腐殖化作用,腐殖化作用是一系列極端復雜的過程,其中主要是微生物為主導的生化過程,也可能是純化學的反應,但具體作用還無定論。其中比較典型的理論有: 木質素 - 蛋白理論、多酚理論、細胞自溶理論及微生物合成理論等,其中前兩種理論較為重要,得到廣泛應用,并詳細說明了腐殖酸的形成過程。有機質的存在影響著土體的性能,試驗及實踐均表明,隨著有機質含量的增大,土體液塑限提高,而流變阻力減小。有的學者則認為只有當有機質含量達到一定程度時,土的液塑限才隨有機質含量增大而增大,這個含量約為 3 % ~4 %。對于有機質是如何影響土體物理性能的,一般認為有機質通過吸附土顆粒表面的結合水,影響著土體物理性能,其中強結合水是主要因素,弱結合水是次要因素。
The formation process of humic acid is called humification. Humification is a series of extremely complex processes, which are mainly biochemical processes dominated by microorganisms or purified chemical reactions, but the specific role is still uncertain. Typical theories include lignin-protein theory, polyphenol theory, cell autolysis theory and microbial synthesis theory. The first two theories are more important and widely used. The formation process of humic acid is explained in detail. The existence of organic matter affects the performance of soil. The experiment and practice show that with the increase of organic matter content, the liquid-plastic limit of soil increases, while the rheological resistance decreases. Some scholars believe that only when the organic matter content reaches a certain level, the liquid-plastic limit of soil increases with the increase of organic matter content, which is about 3%-4%. As to how organic matter affects the physical properties of soils, it is generally considered that organic matter affects the physical properties of soils by adsorbing bound water on the surface of soil particles, in which strong bound water is the main factor and weak bound water is the secondary factor.

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